General health checks
The regular visits with your healthcare professional that you have no doubt gotten used to now are known as ‘well child visits’. Now your little one is considered a ‘Kindy aged child’ your scheduled visits become a little bit more spread out, about one visit every 12 months (age 3, 4 & 5) being considered normal.
At each of these checkups, your doctor will continue to monitor your child's growth, physical and emotional development, feeding, sleeping and physical awareness; as well as perform tests to determine their eyesight, hearing, heart and lungs are all within healthy ranges for his or her age. As your child gets older, your doctor will discuss with you, in more detail, nutrition, dental care, crawling, walking and mobility. He or she will also talk to you about your child’s emotions and intellect as they develop, and how you can help them to do so.
Immunisation and vaccinations
Once you have made a decision about your child’s immunisation, your doctor will advise you on what you need to do to ensure your child is up to date with their immunisation as outlined in the national immunisation program (NIP).
As a parent of a kindy aged child, you have had years of experience in dealing with the more common of health problems, such as coughs, fevers, colds, and vomiting; and know the warning signs for more serious issues are to look for. Around this age group your child will most likely suffer ‘minor injuries’, such as cuts, scrapes and bruises as they start to be more adventurous in their play.
Keeping your basic first aid and CPR skills up to date can be an invaluable source of confidence when dealing with these kinds of minor emergencies.
You should not hesitate to contact your health professional if you are not sure what to do in any situation or are worried about your child’s health or welfare.
Signs of serious illness and conditions
Sometimes it is hard to know when your child’s illness is a serious issue, or if it is a common and minor condition. You should call your doctor, or healthcare professional straight away if your child exhibits any of the following:
- Your child has a high temperature or fever of over 38°C.
- Your child has a fit, or convulsion.
- Your child vomits green fluid.
- Your child has a lump in the groin area, or hernia.
- Your child has an apneic episode (stops breathing for more than 15 seconds)
- There are also other signs that can indicate serious illness, if your child’s behaviour indicates more than one of the following you should seek medical advice immediately.
- Excessive drowsiness (Less alert than usual, less aware of surroundings than usual).
- Decreased activity (considerably less active, less interested in activities).
- Breathing difficulty (coughing, short shallow breath, labored breathing).
- Poor circulation (baby is pale, hands and feet might be cold to touch).
- Feeding less (around half their normal intake).
- Less urinary output (less than 4 in 24-hour period).
When to see your doctor
You should see your doctor if you are worried about your child. Your doctor is there to diagnose and treat any illnesses you and your little one might have, but they are also there to answer your questions and reassure you. Most healthcare professionals understand the anxiousness that comes with being unsure as a parent and will be happy to see you to ease your concern.
Daily Care : Nappies
By the time, your child is 3 years of age, you are probably well and truly sick of changing nappies and are in the process of toilet training. You may still be using nappies at night or when you go out or may have reached the stage where you can forgo them completely (Congratulations!)
Disposable nappies come in a variety of sizes and styles, and by now you have probably worked out which are the best ones for you. You can continue to use whichever brand you find the best and upgrade your sizes as your baby grows. Disposable nappies also come in ‘pull up’ styles that are helpful when toilet training.
Reusable, or cloth, nappies come in many different styles, types, colours and can be made from a variety of materials. If you have chosen to use reusable nappies, the best part about them is that you can continue to use the ones you have! You might find that you need to buy different sized liners and outer wraps for them as baby grows, but most cloth, or reusable, nappies are one size suits all. You can also find reusable nappies in a ‘pull up’ style that are helpful when toilet training.
It is common for children to start toilet training around 2-3 years, but some children can be showing signs of being ready from as early as 18 months. There are many techniques for toilet training and each child may respond better to a particular one. Both disposable and reusable nappies come in ‘pull up’ styles that can be helpful during the transition process. Most children are toilet trained fully by age 4 or 5. Your healthcare professional can talk to you about toilet training techniques.
Nappy rash is the term commonly given to a skin irritation in young children. It is caused by the skin being in prolonged contact with the moisture from a soiled nappy, rubbing or chafing from the nappy itself, or (rarely) could be a result of allergic dermatitis.
Children can also suffer a type of ‘nappy rash’ when they transition into wearing underwear.
Make sure your child is cleaning their genital area thoroughly after using the toilet, and if they have any accidents change their pants straight away. Not wiping properly and spending time in wet underwear can also cause conditions like thrush and urea rash.
Allowing your child to spend time with fresh air and a controlled amount of sunlight around their skin is very beneficial to clearing up skin irritations. Nappy rash ointment and creams are very readily available from stores and are also very effective.
Dressing preschool aged children
The best kinds of clothing for preschool aged children are easy and comfortable for them to move around in and are not constricting. They should be easy to pull on and off (elastic waisted pants and skirts, clothes with Velcro or large buttons and buttonholes) and durable (your child will put clothes through their paces) clothes with logos and pictures with easy to define fronts and backs, as they start to learn to dress themselves.
As your child gets older, they will be able to tell you if they are cold or hot, and you can dress them accordingly. Bear in mind that sometimes children will say that they are not cold or hot to avoid dressing appropriately.
Dressing for bed
It is recommended to dress your preschool aged child in traditional type pyjamas for sleep. You should dress your child for bed in the same manner that you yourself would dress, so that they don’t become cold at night and ensure that you provide them with the correct bedding for the weather.
Tips for dressing your child
Now that your child is a little bit older, they will want to start helping to dress themselves. Make getting dressed fun by singing songs and making games as you dress them, this will make them more eager and confident as they learn to navigate zippers and buttons.
Cleaning your child’s face and head
Teach your child the importance of keeping their face clean throughout the day, especially as we branch out even further in the world of food. You will find that your child is not always as skilled as grown-ups are at getting the food in the mouth as opposed to all over the face.
You can clean your child’s face with clean washers and water, or use convenient ‘wet wipes’ throughout the day, and clean more thoroughly when your child has a bath.
Caring for your child’s genitals
Keeping your child’s genitals clean and fresh is particularly important to their general hygiene. Not thoroughly cleaning when toileting and bathing can lead to illness and serious skin irritations.
If your child is a girl, make sure you teach her to clean her vagina from front to back to avoid spreading bacteria from her bottom to her genitals when she goes to the toilet or bathes. In the bath you can use a washcloth and clean her genitals as part of your routine, still taking care to wipe from front to back, and teaching her to do the same. If you are worried or concerned about her, you should call your doctor.
Boys’ genitals also require thorough cleaning. As he learns to go to the toilet himself, teach him to always wipe from front to back, and thoroughly, taking care to not spread bacteria from his bottom to his genitals. You can teach him to clean his penis as part of his regular bath. If you are worried or concerned about your son, you should call your doctor.
Preparing the bath
You should be bathing your preschool aged child in your family bath. A bath can be made fun by adding toys and games, and bath time can quickly become playtime. Encouraging your child to play and be comfortable in the water helps to make bath time seem fun and less of a chore as they grow. You might even like to get in the bath with them. You can also encourage your child to enjoy having a shower as they grow.
Giving the bath
When it comes to giving your child a bath, remember that you need to teach them to start at the top and work your way down their body. Teach them to take a clean washer and clean their eyes, ears, and face. You can wet your child’s hair, but he or she will only need it ‘shampooed’ every 2 days or so. Make sure you use a specialty children’s shampoo. Teach your child to always clean their genitals last, so as not to spread any bacteria to other parts of the body. Talk your child through the process of the bath as you do it and encourage them to help clean themselves.
Some kids will really enjoy the bath and will want to stay and play in it after you are finished washing, but it is important to remember that they can still get cold very quickly and not to stay in the water too long. Some children will prefer to take a shower with someone else until they are comfortable showering alone.
Don’t ever leave your child alone in the bath or shower. Children can drown in very shallow water and in only a few seconds or slip easily in a shower.
When to bath
Most preschool aged children will bathe once a day, some parents who have children that really enjoy baths might be tempted to bathe more often, but this can lead to them having dry skin. You can make bath time any time during the day, whether you prefer to do so in the morning, throughout the day or as part of a calming night routine is entirely up to you.
What if my child doesn’t like baths?
If your child really doesn’t like baths, you can try using a few different techniques to work up their tolerance to bath time. Try making it an interactive experience. Singing, playing, and splashing in the bath can help your child to feel more relaxed and enjoy it more. Lots of parents make it a group activity, by taking their child in the shower with themselves or hopping in the bath too. The earlier that your child comes to like bath time the easier it will make your life as they grow.
You might find that as your child gets a little older, he or she becomes less co-operative with your attempts to trim their little fingernails. It is best to get someone to help you by calming or distracting your child while you use specialty baby nail clippers or use nail scissors to trim them down. Another technique is to cut their nails while they sleep, eat, or are in some other way distracted.
Trimming your child’s nails regularly will help stop him or her from scratching both themselves, and you. Now that your little one is spending more time exploring the world, you might find that their nails are being worn down naturally and don’t require trimming as regularly.
Most children will have their full set of primary teeth by age 3 to 3 ½. Although ‘baby teeth’ are deciduous and will fall out to be replaced by ‘adult teeth’, it is still incredibly important to maintain proper dental hygiene.
Tooth and Gum care
Encouraging healthy dental habits from a very young age will help you to teach your child to brush their teeth themselves. By the time, your child is 3 years of age, you should be using a soft infant toothbrush with fluoride toothpaste to clean their teeth twice a day. Discuss which toothpaste is best for your child with your dental professional.
Singing a special ‘teeth-brushing’ song or having a special routine with dental care can help to make the experience fun for your child. Setting your child up with good oral hygiene from a young age will benefit them greatly in the future.
Early tooth decay prevention
It is important to remember that diet can immensely influence tooth decay. To avoid any early tooth decay, avoid giving your child too much of anything sweet, including drinks like fruit juice and soft drink. You should also try not to expose your children to too much acidic food, like citrus. Be careful when sharing food with your children and try not to share eating utensils. Your own mouth is full of bacteria that can be spread to their still developing teeth and gums.
raisingchildren.net.au. (2020, June 1). Personal hygiene for children: in pictures. Retrieved from https://raisingchildren.net.au/preschoolers/health-daily-care/hygiene/personal-hygiene
raisingchildren.net.au. (2019, July 29). Dental care for preschoolers. Retrieved from https://raisingchildren.net.au/preschoolers/health-daily-care/dental-care/dental-care-preschoolers
raisingchildren.net.au. (2020, July 30). Toilet training: a practical guide. Retrieved from https://raisingchildren.net.au/preschoolers/health-daily-care/toileting/toilet-training-guide
raisingchildren.net.au. (2019, August 14). Immunisation in childhood. Retrieved from https://raisingchildren.net.au/toddlers/health-daily-care/immunisation/immunisation
raisingchildren.net.au. (2019, June 6). Teaching your child how to get dressed. Retrieved from https://raisingchildren.net.au/preschoolers/health-daily-care/dressing/how-to-get-dressed
raisingchildren.net.au. (2019, August 19). Young children’s health: what to expect. Retrieved from https://raisingchildren.net.au/preschoolers/health-daily-care/health-concerns/young-children-s-health